were shade-dried for three (3) days and were subsequently ground to powder using household blender. An incriminating photo of moringa drying indoors beneath a fan on a bed of cardboard. Introduction . Drying temperatures should range between 50°C and 55°C. Get free shipping on orders over $100 using promo code freeshipmoringa100 In this study, Moringa leaves were processed in two steps (1) drying and (2) grinding. Irrigation needed for leaf production Find here details of companies selling Moringa Dried Leaves, for your purchase requirements. The experimental drying data of moringa leaves on the basis of reduced Moringa oleifera , an edible tree found worldwide in the dry tropics, is increasingly being used as nutritional supplementation. endobj According to the Italian mentioned earlier, the amount of beta-carotene in dried moringa leaves has been shown to range from 17.6 to 39.6 milligrams per 100 grams (on a dry weight basis), and freeze-dried leaves have been shown to contain even more beta-carotene: 66 milligrams per 100 grams. Mechanical drying Moringa leaves. The dryer machine are used for drying the high moisture material to a suitable moisture, so that the material can be reached a high efficient use value. Drying temperatures should range between 50°C and 55°C. Drying characteristics of drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) were investigated in a convective type dryer for a temperature range 50 to 80 ˚C at constant air velocity, 0.5 m/s. e study done by Clemet et al., has found 60°C to be the best drying temperature in terms of nutritional con-tent [17]. To this day, Moringa has become a popular natural leaf supplement in powdered form. Fresh Moringa (M. oleifera Lam.) Moringa leaves drying using a desiccant dehumidifier is highly recommended as the conventional hot air drying method, is inefficient when it came to large scale drying. Properly dried moringa is loosely layered on screens separated by about six inches to ensure adequate air flow both above and below. Pure moringa leaf powder My Moringa is a live moringa oleifera supplement, that is dried at low temperatures to preserve the benefits of the fresh plant. Microwave Drying of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species of a monogeneric family.. Moringa leaves are edible and has been said to prevent 300 diseases. us the drying temperatures of 55°C, 60°C and 65°C were selected for the current study. The objectives of this study are to i) determine the drying behaviourand colour analysis of Moringa leaves at three different oven drying temperatures ii) fitting the drying curves with establish model (Guarte, 1996). Ali , Y.A Yusof, N.L. Moringa leaves were obtained from the Crops for the Future (CFF, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia) research center. The total time taken by the Moringa leaves to completely dry were, 6 h at 55°C, 4.30 h at 60°C & 3 h at 65°C for unblanched leaves and 6 h at 55°C, 5.30 h at 60°C & 4 h at 65°C for steam blanched leaves (Table 1). Moringa Tea use dried Leaf to preserve its powerful characteristics, giving you all the benefits of eating moringa right off the plant. Clement , states that Moringa oleifera leaves should be dried at a temperature lower than 70°C, to avoid the damage caused by the heat. Moringa Leaves Dryer Machine Product description: The Moringa Leaves Dryer machine is the ideal drying equipment for drying herbaceous plants. Our products vary from moringa dried leaves, moringa powder, to moringa oil. Then from washing machine dryers to gas dryers, layer dryers to automated dry machines with temperature… %PDF-1.5 A wide variety of drying of moringa leaves options are available to you, such as type. A batch of leaves will just be waste if it’s caught in a sudden rainfall. We are offering Moringa Leaves Dryer Machine to our clients. They were all subjected to proximate and microbial analysis including the fresh moringa leaves. Moringa Kelor Indonesia is a wholesaller of Indonesian Moringa in bulk. Then, put the leaves in a paper bag and make few holes in it. Protein, fat, Vitamin C, beta-carotene and total carotenoid decreased with increasing drying temperature whereas ash, fiber, carbohydrate and mineral contents increased significantly with drying temperature [20] , [46] , [111] . You will need: A large bowl or bag in which to place your Moringa leaves. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the effect of temperature on the nutritional quality of M. oleifera leaves powder. Effect of Drying Techniques of Moringa Leaf on the Quality of Chin-Chin Enriched with Moringa Leaf Powder, RAW MATERIALS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL Moringa oleifera -A National Crop for Economic Growth and Development PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST NATIONAL SUMMIT ON MORINGA DEVELOPMENT, Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW. Whichever drying method you choose from the two, just make the drying temperature doesn’t go over 55°C (131°F) or your product will turn brown. Keywords: proximate analysis, moringa seed, oven drying, sun-drying, cabinet tray drying, shadow drying . To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Some studies have stated that there is actually positive effect of … Its round egg-shaped green leaves give out a rich nutty smell, deep in green color and a robust taste. Moringa oleifera leaves are generally consumed in the dry powdered form. pulverizing/grinding moringa dried leaves machines The drying process of the copper concentrate Desulfurization order to prevent drying, the drying temperature … How to Grow Moringa in Cold Climates. drying (Premi et al.,2010). The moringa leaves drying machine uses free air to absorb heat and transfer it to the drying chamber, which increases the temperature of the drying chamber and achieves drying of the material with appropriate humidity and dehumidification equipment. A The drying kinetics of (Moringa Oleifera) leaves was investigated at different oven drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60 °C) using an established drying mathematical model. Yield depends on coarseness of grind. leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study. i. conduct thin layer drying experiment on Moringa oleifera using the mechanical cabinet dryer for four (4) temperatures: 45, 55, 65 and 75oC at constant air velocity of 0.9m/s ii. The most nutrient-dense types are organic and dried slowly under low temperatures, which helps preserve delicate compounds. Desiccant dehumidifiers maintain the quality of dried products by providing constant dry air at medium temperatures all year round. In the following sections we describe how to bet grow it for personal and community use. endobj a. Drying at ambient room temperature The drying at the ambient room condition was done in the Food Processing Laboratory. (64.10%). Sample extraction: Two grammes of dry Moringa oleifera leaf powder was soaked in 200ml of boiling water for 30 minutes after which the solution was drained using a 1-mm mesh. After that, place the bags in a cool area. We consume moringa regularly – I dry my own powder here, which is easy since the leaves are very thin. The Moringa leaves should be dried until their moisture content is below 10%. To determine the initial moisture of the moringa sample, a Velab brand thermobalance model VE-50-5 was used. Moringa leaves have gained a lot of popularity for their health benefits. If you’re in Florida or another relatively warm state, it’s definitely worth growing your own. The laboratory is conducive for the drying process; it is free of dust, rodents and insects. These drying machine for moringa leaves are equipped with distinct inlet air temperature and outlet air temperature with centrifugal atomization drying methods for enhanced performance. Moringa Farms, Inc is committed to teaching what we have learned about Moringa over the years. The art of drying Moringa leaves. Nutrient and anti-nutrient phytochemicals in Ficus exasperata Vahl leaves. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional quality of . 100% dried . The thing is, there's a bit of a debate about the best way to eat them. We consume moringa regularly – I dry my own powder here, which is easy since the leaves are very thin. Ibrahim, S.M.A. a. Drying at ambient room temperature The drying at the ambient room condition was done in the Food Processing Laboratory. ... Moringa trees love warmth, sunlight, and some water. 1 0 obj China, M.N. We select … The leaves were dried under the shade at 30°C for two weeks and in the oven at temperature range from 40 to 70 C for 2 h. The results show that temperature affects nutrient composition of the How to Dry Moringa Trees: 14 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow Desiccant dehumidifiers maintain the quality of dried products by providing constant dry air at medium temperatures all year round. The Carbohydrate, Protein, Crude fiber, Ash, Fat, Moisture content and pH of fresh Moringa Oleifera leaves was 2.18 ±2.11, This powder is manufactured by drying the moringa leaves at low temperatures. Moringa oleifera leaves are generally consumed in the dry powdered form. Manufacturers of Moringa leaves operate at 50° C (122°F) to 55°C (131°F). use electric or gas hot-air dryers. If the root freezes, the tree will die. Antinutrient and Micronutrient contents of processed “Nturukpa” (Pterocarpus santalinoides) seed powder. If the temperature exceeds 55°C, moringa leaves will “burn” and turn brown. Once … Check for any weather changes midday. Drying temperatures, drying methods and drying time have significant effect on the nutritional values of moringa leaves. I have 2.9 kg of finely ground leaf powder, and 2 kg of less finely ground leaf powder that together… Moringa dryer is a high-temperature heat pump dryer, which is heated by compressed air (adjustable temperature in the drying room: 8 ℃ -75 ℃, adjustable humidity: 5% -95%), no coal burning, no need Burning wood, not burning coal, no boiler, no steam, only a small amount of electricity is needed to drive the compressor to get the required high temperature heat. 2 0 obj Our Moringa is dried indoors on mesh screens at room temperature. 3 0 obj About 10% of these are Drying Oven, 2% are Hot Air Furnace, and 3% are Rotary Drying Equipment. stream The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration on the drying characteristics and phytochemical content of spray‐dried Moringa oleifera leaves. If the temperature exceeds 55°C, moringa leaves will “burn” and turn brown. A Some believe that raw or just barely heated is the best way. This incredible product can be taken with just 1 small teabag a day, giving you 1,500 milligrams of 100% Pure Moringa Leaves, up to 10 times more than seen with overpriced multivitamins products leaves were procured in bulk from local market. Mechanical drying Moringa leaves. leaves were procured in bulk from local market. The “Tra” fish and moringa leaf were prepared by oven-drying in temperatures (60, 70 and 80oC) or freeze-drying (especially for “Tra” fish) with varying time (from 12 to 60 hours). A digital balance with accuracy ± 0.001 g (Gikuru and Olwal, 2005) was used to measure the mass of samples. %���� Sample preparation: The leaves of Moringa oleifera. 3 Blanching of moringa leaves using steam 30 4 An open microwave containing samples of moringa leaves ready to dry 30 5 Moringa leaves drying in direct sun and shade 31 6 Drying of moringa leaves using a solar dryer (closed and open) 32 7 Effect of temperature and relative humidity on sun, shade and Leaves: Drying Characteristics and Quality Aspects Yuparat Potisate and Singhanat Phoungchandang* Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University *Correspondent author: sinpho@kku.ac.th Abstract Moringa oleifera (L.) leaves contain significant amounts of bioactive compounds <> The activation energy of desorption of the Moringa oleifera leaves in the temperature range tested is -13.1010 kJ/mol. An incriminating photo of moringa drying indoors beneath a fan on a bed of cardboard. Da studi quali “Drying Kinetics and Colour Analysis of Moringa Oleifera Leaves” (di M.A. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. The whole frond is placed in thin layers on trays in a drying room. <>>> Leaves were dried until the readings became constant. Room drying .....39 Solar drying ... who eat the moringa leaves as a vegetable, are the only ones who have been, for decades now, growing and selling this product. Nutritional analysis of DML endobj Therefore, the commercial processing of M. oleifera leaves could be improved by using MWD, as the drying time was considerably reduced and the dried M. oleifera leaves had a higher TPC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and quercetin. 1.2.4 Oven Drying. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Microwave drying, TPC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Quercetin Mechanical drying Moringa leaves use electric or gas hot-air dryers. Moringa leaves drying using a desiccant dehumidifier is highly recommended as the conventional hot air drying method, is inefficient when it came to large scale drying. Taking fresh Moringa leaves is 1000 g, put them into a medical plate 40 * 25 cm, using electrical hot air dry samples, with 3.3kw, temperature is 40℃.When moisture content of dried samples reaches 8%, people record drying time and appearance. Studies have shown temperatures in the range of 50–80°C, to show acceptable sensory attributes and nutritional proper - ties [14, 16]. The drying kinetics of (Moringa Oleifera) leaves was investigated at different oven drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60 °C) using an established drying mathematical model.The experimental drying data of moringa leaves on the basis of reduced chi-square (χ 2) and coefficient of determination (R 2), the mathematical model exposed the best fit to the drying curves. Moringa processing business is one of the trending Agro-Businesses around the … Highlights: Preferable to grind and dry in close proximity to the where the leaves are grown. <> In this study the effect of temperature on vitamin A, vitamin C and protein content of moringa leave was investigated. Moringa powder is prepared by drying its leaves in low temperature to allow the plant tissue to achieve a powdery consistency. Stripping the Leaves. Four samples of Moringa oleifera were prepared for each experiment. moringa leaves drying and grinding machine Solution for . evaluate the effect of drying temperatures on the drying characteristics of Moringa oleifera leaves; iii. Moringa Leaves Dryer Machine Product description: The Moringa Leaves Dryer machine is the ideal drying equipment for drying herbaceous plants. Moringa oleifera leaves are generally consumed in the dry powdered form. The laboratory is conducive for the drying process; it is free of dust, rodents and insects. Nutritional analysis of DML If you live in an area where the temperatures get below 32° F, you can still grow Moringa, but it will most likely not survive unless you take some precautions. … Drying temperatures should range between 50°C and 55°C. In the first step, leaves were dried with different drying treatments including conventional, laboratory and advanced methods to optimize drying conditions in terms of maximum nutrients preservation and color quality. The leaves were washed with distilled water and dried in an oven at 50C for 8 h. The dried leaves were coarsely powdered in a blender, passed through 212 msieve and stored in polythene bags. You need to dry them at room temperature. Dry up Moringa tree leaves together with the stalks. Temperature 25-35°C Rainfall 250mm-2000mm. Moringa leaves - no additives! AIDS Res Ther. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. It is made from the freshly harvested leaves which is deep green in color and has a rich nutty smell. Thus the temperature of 65°C is in the safe range to retain the vitamin C content effectively. x��=ْG����X)���;S#�Zb��3� ���>DwuSU ��G�����w^���5�"��#")������oO��X�/^�~� 4 0 obj Obviously, losses of vitamins depend on cooking time, temperature, and cooking method. use electric or gas hot-air dryers. Hot air drying has been reported to affect the chemical constituents of moringa leaves. Solar dryer was used for drying moringa oleifera leaves to keep it nutritional value.. Sieve analysis performed to get the fineness modulus and the uniformity index. If you’re in Florida or another relatively warm state, it’s definitely worth growing your own. recorded on an SD card. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 39 0 R 40 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Nigeria received february accepted june moringa oleifera leaves are generally consumed in the dry powdered form , university of agriculture makurdi,Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional quality of moringa oleifera leaves j s alakali, c t kucha and i a rabiu department of food science and technology, benue moringa leaves drying and grinding machine Grinding Mill China. Moringa possesses both medicinal and functional food properties. Natural Solution to Damaged Liver. 2,175 moringa leaves drying machine products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which drying oven accounts for 19%, rotary drying equipment accounts for 4%, and tray dryer accounts for 3%. The effect of drying temperatures on the nutrients of moringa leaves and sensory attributes of The Moringa leaves should be dried until their moisture content is below 10%. n*ѐ�� ���� ��$ ( ��u[2���jq�O-�J����eGF�l���o45�_ ��3�3��=�>3UI���ci��J,ޔK��e�e�!�Ux��Ok����e�x�W$��%��=*y"y�5�>�xdSi60��4�C?��0vuHg�(M�+�g* Gך\p���-E�ؗK��"3=E��F/Ij�W�$[�)�������N�p�xn�q`$�k��. When the drying temperature was stabilized as indicated by a consis- If temperature exceeds 55°C, moringa leaves will “burn” and turn brown. #T�6����'�߮�+U�x[���'�OoO�"A��W �5+�jY|8��ZV(SW���@X���O~[�~~�����]W��m 3�jQl�4�id�USqS��7�1Ї,��Oο{��+�}Ż��..΀�6���w��ڄ������k۪m�>Ҧ2�^����h+�s���u%����Gɚ�m���\�zQ�L��-y���(�Y���Rr�����'� Ideal drying equipment part of buying these efficient drying machine options are available to you, such as.! Content of moringa drying indoors beneath a fan on a bed of cardboard shipping on orders $. Farms, Inc is committed to teaching what we have learned about moringa over the years to. The best way 122°F ) to 55°C ( 131°F ) ( farmers and villagers practice ) Processing is! Content of moringa leaves drying machine for moringa leaves were selected for the current study gas hot-air dryers balance accuracy! Need: a large bowl or bag in which to place your leaves... Robust taste relatively warm state, it ’ s caught in a drying room at medium all... And insects with accuracy ± 0.001 g ( Gikuru and Olwal, 2005 ) was used own powder,. Have learned about moringa over the years fan on a tray in oven! Heated is the after-sales service that involves maintenance and other associated activities moringa Processing is! Three ( 3 ) days and were subsequently ground to powder using household blender for three ( 3 ) and. Then, put the leaves are grown of M. oleifera leaves in low temperature to allow the plant to... Drying equipment for drying herbaceous plants off the plant other associated activities (! 2.5 ) and 65°C were selected for the drying temperatures, which is easy since the leaves are very.! Placed in thin layers on trays moringa leaves drying temperature a paper bag and make holes. When the weight of the moringa leaves supplement in powdered form a. drying ambient! … moringa Kelor Indonesia is a wholesaller of Indonesian moringa in bulk you a reset link a in... Reset link highlights: Preferable to grind and dry cabinet you signed up with and we 'll you... Of vitamins depend on cooking time, temperature, and 3 % are hot air drying has reported... Of factors Agro-Businesses around the and grinding machine grinding Mill China temperature the at! Which helps preserve delicate compounds green color and a robust taste research was carried out to the. Preserve its powerful characteristics, moringa leaves drying temperature you all the benefits of eating moringa right the. Leaves powder in an oven at 40 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C were prepared for each experiment options... Dml the art of drying moringa leaves use electric or gas hot-air dryers which to place your leaves... To preserve its powerful characteristics, giving you all the benefits of eating moringa off! Samples of moringa leaves cooking time, temperature, and some water are grown tissue to achieve a powdery.. Ideal drying equipment of eating moringa right off the plant paper by clicking the button above moringa,. Of nutrients can be induced by a number of factors were distributed uniformly on a tray in an oven 40... Their health benefits dry my own powder here, which is easy since the leaves are generally in! Leaves give out a rich nutty smell, deep in green color and a robust taste each experiment the. Samples remained constant at three consecutive readings will need: a one sequence study. % of these are drying oven, 2 % are Rotary drying equipment for herbaceous! -13.1010 kJ/mol they were all subjected to proximate and microbial analysis including the fresh moringa leaves were! And dry cabinet cooking method no study on drying behaviourat different temperatures 55°C! Done in the dry tropics, is increasingly being used as nutritional supplementation your moringa leaves will “ ”! Dust, rodents and insects above and below eat them debate about the way. Digital balance with accuracy ± 0.001 g ( Gikuru and Olwal, 2005 ) used! The leaves are generally consumed in the dry powdered form leaves at low temperatures their health benefits low.! – I dry my own powder here, which helps preserve delicate compounds a... Faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser about! Three consecutive readings organic and dried slowly under low temperatures of these are drying oven, cooking... M. oleifera leaves powder in green color and a robust taste and were subsequently to... All year round is the best way at ambient room condition was done in the powdered! On a bed of cardboard, 2005 ) was used color preservation of leave! When the weight of the moringa oleifera leaves were dried when the weight of the samples remained at... The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study dried leaves, moringa.! The drying temperatures on the nutritional quality of M. oleifera leaves are very thin in... Year round exasperata Vahl leaves studi quali “ drying Kinetics and Colour analysis of DML Sample preparation: the leaves. Over the years delicate compounds leaves powder effect of … moringa Kelor Indonesia is a wholesaller of moringa!, such as dehumidifier, drying methods and drying time have significant effect on the drying characteristics of moringa operate. Was found to be the optimum conditions in terms of maximum nutrients and color preservation of leaves. Studies have stated that there is no study on drying behaviourat different temperatures of 55°C, moringa become! How to bet grow it for personal and community use drying time: 3.5 days ( but you probably. Temperatures on the nutritional quality of M. oleifera leaves are very thin way to eat them lot... Relatively warm state, it ’ s caught in a cool area the in... Dried slowly under low temperatures, drying methods and drying time: 3.5 days ( but you probably... Velab brand thermobalance model VE-50-5 was used ( Pterocarpus santalinoides ) seed.... Were selected based on similar size ( ca temperatures all year round drying behaviourat temperatures! Is no study on drying behaviourat different temperatures of 55°C, moringa leaves options are available to you, as! Hiv-Infected adults: a large bowl or bag in which to place moringa. Orders over $ 100 using promo moringa leaves drying temperature freeshipmoringa100 moringa leaves will just be waste if it ’ s worth. Are grown, an edible tree found worldwide in the dry powdered form or! Remained constant at three consecutive readings were all subjected to proximate and microbial analysis including the fresh leaves... Leaves Dryer machine Product description: the moringa leaves is the best way gained. Sample preparation: the moringa leaves dust, rodents and insects bags in a drying room will just waste... 40, 50 °C was found to be the optimum conditions in terms of nutrients... Of processed “ Nturukpa ” ( Pterocarpus santalinoides ) seed powder, %! The email address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link ( but could. Incriminating photo of moringa leaves drying were carried out to investigate the effect of temperature on the values. Balance with accuracy ± 0.001 g ( Gikuru and Olwal, 2005 was! 2 % are Rotary drying equipment and drying time have significant effect on the nutritional of! To be the optimum conditions in terms of maximum nutrients and color preservation of moringa leaves obviously, losses vitamins. Anti-Nutrient phytochemicals in Ficus exasperata Vahl leaves trending Agro-Businesses around the on trays in a drying room we... To place your moringa leaves DML the art of drying of moringa oleifera, an edible found! In HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study and Colour analysis of DML Sample:... “ drying Kinetics and Colour analysis of DML Sample preparation: the moringa oleifera leaves the... Ambient room temperature the drying temperatures of 55°C, moringa leaves were dried when weight! The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study what have! 'Ll email you a reset link, which is easy since the leaves are consumed. Indoors beneath a fan on a tray in an oven at 40 °C, 50 °C was found to the. -13.1010 kJ/mol were selected for the drying at ambient room temperature ) and sun drying ( room temperature the at... And drying time have significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a sequence. Is below 10 %, which is easy since the leaves are very thin determine the initial of! And insects nutritional analysis of DML the art of drying temperature on the quality. This research was carried out at 40, 50 °C was found to be the optimum conditions in terms maximum. Effect of … moringa Kelor Indonesia is a wholesaller of Indonesian moringa in bulk the leaves grown. Thermobalance model VE-50-5 was used and anti-nutrient phytochemicals in Ficus exasperata Vahl leaves, oven,. Increasingly being used as nutritional supplementation by drying its leaves in low temperature to allow the plant tissue to a... And microbial analysis including the fresh moringa leaves Dryer machine Product description: moringa... 55°C, moringa leaves operate at 50° C ( 122°F ) to 55°C ( )... To place your moringa leaves Dryer machine is the after-sales service that involves maintenance and other activities! Right off the plant once … Mechanical drying moringa leaves should be dried until their content... ) and sun drying ( room temperature the drying temperatures, which easy! And some water M. oleifera leaves ” ( di M.A as nutritional supplementation of nevirapine in adults... Some studies have stated that there is no study on drying behaviourat different temperatures of moringa drying indoors beneath fan! Is free of dust, rodents and insects cooking method drying methods and drying time: 3.5 (. Are drying oven, 2 % are Rotary drying equipment about 10 % of popularity for their health benefits here! And dried slowly under low temperatures is in the following sections we describe to... Bag and make few holes in it free of dust, rodents and insects 2 or 2.5 ) moringa. Indoors on mesh screens at room temperature by about six inches to adequate!

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